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Quotations are given in the original language with English translations immediately following in square brackets. Unless otherwise stated, these translations were done by Nick Shaw. Our study does not aim to be an in-depth exploration of the field, but rather focuses on the work of female poets, essayists, narrators and playwrights that have been translated into Galician. The catalogue of women authors and their works, together with the publishing, literary and personal process of which they are part, provides, in our opinion, an accurate image of the role played by gender and translation in Galician literature.

We have therefore chosen to restrict our research to translation as a product whether of a publishing, cultural, ideological or political nature , and to establish a much-needed relationship with other disciplines, but principally with literature studies. Future research will be left with the task of studying works that as yet remain untranslated or invisible, an essential task if we wish to shed some light on the relationships of power that evolve within our culture system.

As with any analysis of this kind, the timescale is necessarily short, which may perhaps oblige us in the future to qualify or revise some of our conclusions. Von Flotow pointed to translators as being responsible for introducing these works, although in the Galician context it has always been feminist publishers or scholars who have made the initial selection, found ways of publishing usually by asking a publisher directly and undertaken the translation of such works.

These two concepts will come in useful as themes for our study, and we will thus refer to them during the course of our analysis. As has often been pointed out, the production of literature by women has taken place within a context of marginality, deriving from the role assigned to the female gender in society. In recent decades the feminist movement has reacted against this lack of visibility on the part of women writers and their works by demanding recognition for forgotten figures and undertaking a serious labour of planning.

This feminist discourse encouraged the appearance of a series of voices that cultivated the various genres, in the main poetry, that made frequent reference to their gender in their writings. These women writers, at times united by a feeling of cross- generational sisterhood, have had to overcome the obstacles of patriarchy, dismantling truths that were held to be universal, conquering spaces for themselves and demolishing a goodly number of prejudices.

Such a panorama places the introduction of works by female writers from other codes at a crossroads marked by a dual marginality: that of translation and that of gender. We should point out that if this study focuses exclusively on literary translation it is for several reasons: for its visibility and its ability to make things visible, for its relevance within the target culture3 and for the possibilities it opens up for the study of ideological behaviours. Translation and Gender in Galician Literature 3trans women translators and interpreters are in the majority4, and that further research is needed into translation behaviours regarding gender in what is commonly referred to as commercial or pragmatic translation.

There is a need for publishers to improve their translation planning in order to fill the gaps that still persist in the various fields of knowledge and to do away with the current imbalance in the kind of books published from one year to the next. If one has to make an appraisal, then the publishing of literature translated into Galician can be resumed in the following terms. On the negative side, it should be noted that literature translated into Galician is characterised, on the one hand, by the low level of consumption of foreign literature in this language which also has to compete with translations of the same works into Spanish , and on the other by the persistent lack of planning on the part of publishers.

On the positive side, points to note are the availability of a growing number of professionals trained specifically to translate into Galician, and with a wider range of source languages to translate from, and the growing interest and efforts of publishers which do not always find the necessary institutional support to offer works by modern writers. Translation, publishing and the marketplace: a typology of translations One of the symptoms that reveals the lack of normality of literary translation into Galician is its heterogeneity from the publishing point of view.

Although publishers are increasingly showing greater coherence in the planning of their translations catalogue above all where the narrative genre is concerned , many of the translations published in recent decades are the result of a personal interest and willingness, on many occasions divorced from any real perspective of their possible publication. Texts are chosen, in this case, on the basis of subjective criteria which, for scholars of literature and culture, often provide valuable date regarding sources and intertextual referents.

Such freedom when it comes to choosing the texts to be produced arises, for obvious reasons, in journals and periodicals, as well as in small publishing houses, that are able to maintain a greater degree of independence from the marketplace. Luna [… what is imported differs according to whether it is done by a major publisher, where imports may be decided on the basis of commercial criteria and purposes, or by one with a more limited output, where importing may be done more for literary reasons, or by one in the field of nationalist politics, where political functions form the main reason for importing a work.

Generally speaking, such work consists of excerpts from longer texts that rarely appear as such in translated form. Translation and Gender in Galician Literature 5trans humus of the poetry of a person, a group or even a generation.

In this regard, the authors male and female translated become, when these versions are made known, significant aesthetic markers and a key to the understanding of a work. One of them came into being for pragmatic reasons, namely the need to use it in the performance Catro poetas suicidas. A Poetic Intervention against Levity] ; the other, as a consequence of the acknowledged craft of the translator, which has also led Marilar Aleixandre to produce translations of works by Silvia Plath and Adrienne Rich. The short excerpt from the laudatio that we have just reproduced is also an example of the gaps that exist in the translation catalogue, as well as of the difficulty in finding a publisher for translations of poetry, even that of acknowledged women writers.

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Private translations can also appear in the form of quotes used epigraphs. Deixamos pegadas de sangue nas alleas terras da palabra. Thus, Carmen Blanco uses an extended extract from the writings of the Italian thinker Luisa Muraro to preface her work O contradiscurso das mulleres. Another way of making private translations visible is to incorporate them in the body of a text, in an exercise of intertextuality and collage to which poetry has been no stranger in recent decades. Que sexa. Que sexan os outros. Others should. My part , let it be lost.

Occasionally, the author provides both the original texts and her translations. For this reason, almost all the quotes included here show significant deviations from the original text. These, varied in nature and often short- lived, have over the years made up for the somewhat flimsy publishing fabric, and thus constitute a broad and widely dispersed corpus of enormous value for understanding certain periods in Galician literature, such as the poetry revival movement of the early nineteen- eighties.

Some of the most stable periodical publications of the last decades have been receptive towards translation, even to the extent of having regular sections devoted to it. Th introduction of literary translation has not only served to provide visibility, but also to naturalise a habit and to show up deficiencies.

These versions present certain characteristics that derive from the medium itself: they are almost invariably texts that have been translated at the wish of the translator her or himself, often a writer. Since they are individual initiatives, and rarely obey any kind of planning, they reveal personal interests and affinities, on the whole the result of a desire to make good the lack of literary translation into Galician.

Space constraints also condition the choice of texts, most of which are poetry, although there is also some narrative. In the case of the relationship between translation and gender, these journals provide us, for the reasons mentioned above, with highly valuable information. An analysis of the leading journals published in recent decades that dedicate some of their space to translations reveals the almost total absence of women writers.

One of the journals that welcomed translation to its pages was Dorna. Critics have highlighted the role played by Dorna in disseminating the poetry of the nineteen-eighties, in which the most widely consolidated trend was characterised by a return to classical themes, attention to form and, above all, culturalism and the practice of intertextuality with leading universal writers such as Rilke, Ezra Pound, T. Eliot or Cavafis. Of these three translations, that of the work of the American poet, published in issue 11 , is of particular relevance due to the influence that, as we have pointed out above, it has had on several Galician women poets.

After an impasse that lasted three years, saw the beginning of a second stage for Dorna, with the participation of numerous writers of both sexes from the generation know as dos noventa [of the nineties], who on the whole opted for a less culturalist type of poetry and for the construction of gender poetics, mainly female. This publication, of a feminist nature, acted as a platform to provide visibility for the literary output of Galician women writers, and succeeded in bringing together voices from various generations.

Its pages also contained translations of women writers gender in this case being one of the selection criteria. Issue 6 saw the appearance of poems by Sylvia Plath, translated by M. Aleixandre Marilar Aleixandre. Aleixandre [The only work translated into Portuguese or Spanish to date apart from her correspondence with her mother is the autobiographical novel The Bell Jar , which reflects the problems of mental equilibrium that marked her whole life. The periodical published versions of poems by other women writers that, in some cases, became the forerunner of longer translations.

Such was the case of Sandra Cisneros: Marilar Aleixandre initially translated three of her poems into Galician, to be followed later by the book Loose Woman Muller ceiba This publication has a specific section for Galician versions of texts written in another language, where we once again find that male voices clearly prevail. These examples also reveal the significant incorporation of women translators.

Winston Hugh Auden prologou o seu primeiro libro —A change of world Unha mudanza de mundo — en Pero, mentres o patriarcado das letras estadounidenses teima en cercar a obra e a persoa de Rich, a poeta de Baltimore tece unha aventura literaria con paraxe final na fuxida do asedio masculino. Auden wrote the foreword to her first published book of poems A change of world in Far from being anecdotal texts, translations published in periodical reveal asymmetries in the literary system and help to construct canons and repertoires. There we looked at the relevance, as far as gender is concerned, of a specific collection devoted to women writers, As Literatas, and of other translations, in book or electronic format, of significant works included in other, broader collections classics, modern narrative, etc.

It is important to bear in mind that, apart from those modern narrative collections in which the choice of authors is often the result of a proposal made by a literary agent and influenced by the best-seller nature of the book in question i. Garrido 36 [When publishers choose the titles and the cover art for a book they are following a communicative strategy plagued with ideology. This choice determines a reception, a reading an ideological one and even points to the kind of audience at which it is aimed.

It can also showcase the contents through such images, thereby also offering the gender affiliation, content and plot of the book. And, as Castro contends: 13 And thus enriching for the target culture, as well as being of symbolic value by representing a certain independence from the system of literary translations into Spanish. This is true of the twentieth century, even though recent feminist activism has integrated many women writers into literary histories. It is more particularly true of women writers from earlier periods, whose Works need to be unearthed by literary historians and read again by literary critics.

This collection began in and currently contains 14 works by the following women writers: K. Blixen, A. Carter, H. Correia, S. Dworkin, L. Jorge, A. Kristof, K. Mansfield, C. McCullers, T. Mercado, H. Perkins, J. Rhys and M. The collection arose as a commitment to translation and literature in this case, narrative prose written by women, with a view to offering a wide range of different models of writing.

Furthermore, this shift is in all certainty related to the series of changes in the publishing and translating industry that Galician literature has been undergoing in recent years, and which we commented on earlier. All the works in the collection are accompanied by a relatively long foreword or introduction, some times by the translator herself or himself, and by a bio-bibliographical introduction to the writer and a blurb that is frequently revealing. This is not the case of the works by H. Kristof, but it is true of Tununa Mercado, K. Mansfield, H. Correia or the collection of short stories by K.

Blixen, C. Perkins and E. The writer points out that this loyalty should also occur in other stages of production, and with regard to the creative stage of translation, she insists on the aesthetic and ideological enrichment that such loyal behaviour can produce. From this standpoint I collected and translated these four stories, four miniature masterpieces, endowed with deep psychological accuracy, that confront sexual politics and the issue of marriage. They are magnificent feminist documents. Tenta liberarse dos gardas. O bafo dos homes fede a augardente.

Todas estamos contaminadas do mesmo polo campo, pensa. Their breath reeks of brandy. Her struggling amuses them, they laugh, as if her attempt to break free is the funniest thing in the world. She is as helpless as a child in their grip. But she keeps struggling, as if still hoping to escape … We are all infected by the camp in the same way, she thinks.

Of tainted blood, we are all the same. Women exist here only in the plural now. Nameless, faceless, interchangeable. There are only two categories, young and old.

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Neither of these two collections Bivir and Toxosoutos includes either an introduction, or a foreword, or an introduction to the author. But all that mould could not suffice to prevent its retrieval, in the nineteen-sixties, when it became an icon of the feminist movement. Two works by Sandra Cisneros have been translated, and in both the focus of the paratext is on the force of her voice and the gender standpoint from which she writes. Translation and Gender in Galician Literature 15trans author of the translation. An imperial superaddressee arises that recognizes the distinctive status of different types of cristianos , e.

Cabeza de Vaca understands that the idea of him becoming a native will lead to rejection by his fellow Spaniards. He would no longer fit into the frame of reference derived from the cristiano imperial superaddressee, except in terms of disloyalty and betrayal, becoming another Guerrero, who collapses into the other Greenblatt , pp. However, his discursive orientation is not smooth.

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The first time Cabeza de Vaca takes up the occupation of trader he may have invested about two years in it Cabeza de Vaca , sig. It appears he leaves that occupation only to then take it up again, maybe after five years, for a shorter period of time, and he is joined in the occupation by his companions: Castillo, Dorantes, and Estevanico Cabeza de Vaca , sig. F3 v , H6 r ; Salisbury , pp. In the imperial scheme, the Africans are depicted as people who reject Christianity and, therefore, can be enslaved in a just war in order to Christianize them.

By identifying Estevanico as negro , Cabeza de Vaca contrasts a recent cristiano to him, an old one. His cristiano superaddressee sustains the interpretation of Estevanico as one who fails to be a complete, authentic cristiano in comparison to him. The neo-feudal Spanish conqueror seeks a feudal relationship with the emperor. The neo-feudal conqueror e. A1 v ; Bakhtin , pp. Nevertheless, their respective superaddressees incorporate the subjugated Africans, disregarding their diversity, fitting them into expected cristiano imperial hierarchical and social slots.

Their ultimate authoritative witnesses categorize African slaves into two types: legally enslaved captives taken in just war and, under the doctrine of natural slavery, inferior people to be governed by superior ones. Though the African slaves become Catholic, the cristiano imperial superaddressee portrays them as suspect, or as inauthentic, or incomplete. A1 v , A2 r ; Rigby , p. The Spanish Crown seeks wage labor in the Americas but political concerns allow slavery and the acceptance of the encomienda Yeager , pp. At times, the Crown appears to attempt to eliminate native slavery and the encomienda system e.

At other times, the Monarchy shows support for forced labor, by issuing the requerimiento , authorizing the importation of African slaves to the Americas e. Although Estevanico the slave functions as a cristiano who performs his duties to the monarch, unlike Cabeza de Vaca, he is not permitted to submit petitions to gain royal favors based on the worthiness of his conduct while serving the monarch Cabeza de Vaca , sigs.

Yet as a cristiano slave, he will be rewarded on the second coming Garnsey , pp. However, within this large group, each comprises a separate subset: Cabeza de Vaca, as redeemer, falls into the subset true cristiano , and the African slave in the incomplete cristiano one. The neo-feudal Spanish conqueror fits into the false cristiano group. This once again reveals the complexity of an imperial superaddressee in flux. Such discourse obscures the dialogic give-and-take between him and el negro.

I3 r ; Adorno and Pautz b, p. Theodoro and a negro leave with natives to get water, even though his fellow cristianos are against this. Later, the natives refuse to return Theodoro and the negro , implying they have chosen to remain with them, and also want their people, who are being held hostage by the cristianos , to be released.

The expeditionary members refuse to free the hostages, but they are unable to regain Theodoro and the negro Adorno and Pautz b, pp. C2 r ; Oviedo , pp. Yet this does not occur. At first, the natives perceive the expeditionary members as invaders e. Nevertheless, there still exist possibilities of being accepted as part of an indigenous community. After being shipwrecked for some time somewhere on the coast of either present day northern Mexico or the state of Texas, U.

In addition, stories about invading Spanish forces attacking indigenous communities spread across the regions Cabeza de Vaca , sigs. Their discourse labels the castaways, including Estevanico, as not simply healers but as potentially harmful and damaging people. This offers Estevanico options in regards to leaving his fellow cristianos and gaining his freedom Cabeza de Vaca , sigs. G4 v , G7 v ; Gordon , p. His utterances take for granted that Estevanico as a negro slave is a loyal, cooperating, and an unequal kind of cristiano.

Cabeza de Vaca does not elaborate on the Africans who are in bondage, supplying no further information. H8 v ; Bakhtin , pp. Adorno, R. Representations , 33, Lincoln: University of Nebraska Press. Ahern, M. Williams and R.

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