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However, much needs to be done as a large number of wild animal species are facing extinction and have attained either status of rare, endangered and threatened RET species or have become smaller, isolated populations. Emergence of technological solutions in the recent decades and timely integration of technology into wildlife research, monitoring and conservation efforts have definitely countered such threats and yielded positive results. Technological innovations have immensely addressed various conservation needs and facilitated better insight and effective management of wildlife resources.

reality check - Is a species' advancement set in stone? - Worldbuilding Stack Exchange

Nevertheless, recent technology advancement and its integration with wildlife sector have been partially successful in reducing the risk to wild animals but to a great extent the advancement and integration process has been hindered by prevailing multiple, complex constraints in terms of their feasibility. Likely future technology solutions based on appropriate application of five human senses instead of just two most common human senses seeing and hearing are undoubtedly expected to contribute pertinent information for sound decision making and management and thus, would be capable of addressing emerging challenges in the context of wildlife conservation.

Based on logical facts presented in this chapter, it is established that in order to ensure effective conservation in future it would be desirable to consider conservationists as central in the overall conservation process. Additionally, there is an urgent need of sharing mental models between the stakeholders, specifically between the conservationists and technologists.

Technological Achievement Tiers

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Please review our Terms and Conditions of Use and check box below to share full-text version of article. Summary World over, the enhanced human activities and all round disturbances have caused dramatic decline of natural ecosystems, wildlife and their habitats. Misinterpretations and intuitive ideas about evolutionary 'progress' or 'advancement'.

Research suggests that students, teachers, and the general public tend to misinterpret evolutionary 'progress' or 'advancement in the following ways:. Taking an unbiased view, it is clear that there is no universal yardstick against which we can measure species. For example, we could focus on photosynthetic ability which would make plants the "higher" beings , sheer number of individuals which would pick out bacteria and microorganisms as special , or any number of other traits.

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Each trait would suggest a very different group of "higher" organisms. Diagrams that represent relationships using a central trunk with side branches reinforce the incorrect idea that evolution is directional and progressive.


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Phylogenetic trees are preferred because they convey information about evolutionary relationships without reinforcing intuitive ideas about evolutionary progress by placing some taxa above or below others. A similar intuitive idea is that some living species are more evolved than others; this idea is explored in the section 'everyday interpretations about time.

It is equally valid to focus on any lineage of descent represented by a phylogeny. The blue lineage on the leftmost phylogeny does not represent the "main" line of evolution. The equivalent phylogenies shown here emphasize that this same lineage could be shown in different ways depending on how the branches of the phylogeny are rotated.

Technology Advancement and Integration in the Context of Wildlife Conservation

However, from a scientific perspective, evolution is neither progressive nor goal-directed and so cannot have a "main trajectory. We could just as easily look at that same phylogeny and focus on the amphibians or ray-finned fishes. No particular pathway of evolution is the "main" one. If an unbalanced phylogeny encourages this intuitive conception, it may be helpful to note that rotating branches around nodes as shown in the trees on the right above yields equivalent phylogenies that visually emphasize different lineages of descent.

The position or placement of a terminal taxon is not an indication of how adaptive, specialized, or extreme its traits are. Pines appear at the right-hand side of this phylogeny, but are not necessarily advanced, specialized, or extreme. Furthermore, rotating branches shows that many equivalent phylogenies exist in which pines are not in the rightmost position.

It is tempting to view organisms that are more similar to humans as more "advanced"; however, this is a biased and invalid perspective. There is no universal scale for "advancement" that favors human-like traits over spider-like, whale-like, or fir-like traits. We can use phylogenetics to study the evolution of eyes, photosynthetic ability, or any other trait, but such traits are not the equivalent of evolutionary advancement.

Second, note that taxa with extreme versions of traits e. Tree designers sometimes place such taxa near the top or right-hand side of a phylogeny, but by rotating branches around nodes, we can generate many equivalent phylogenies in which taxa with extreme traits appear in different positions on the tree.

Species Determination from Blood; An Advancement in Trend Towards the Investigation

Primate tree adapted from Perelman, P. Johnson, C. Roos, H. Seuanez, J. Horvarth, M. Moreira, … and J. A molecular phylogeny of living primates.