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From here The Iberian wolf is considered by some specialists as a sub-species Canis lupus signatus of Canis lupus, though this is rejected by many in the field. It is said to be distinguished by the black marks along its tail, back, jowls and front legs, and so sigantus meaning marked. Recently, however they have managed to cross back over the modern-day barrier of the river Duero and begun to spread southwards and eastwards: two packs have been detected around Guadalajara and have started to move into Teruel in southern Aragon, much to the amazement and trepidation and at first disbelief of the locals.

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There are thought to be some breeding pairs, giving a total number of around 1, at the start of spring and around 2, by mid autumn figures see below. The wolf in Spain is no longer considered endangered, merely vulnerable, though the Sierra Morena and Extremaduran populations are classified as critically endangered, and the latter is almost certainly extinct.

Wolves in the Sierra Morena inhabit private game estates where they are illegally persecuted as they come into conflict with the hunting practices of the rich. Across the border in Portugal, there are reckoned to be between 46 and 62 packs. Spanish wolf population in last complete study As can be seen from my notes for the Iberian wolf seem to be in expansion in numbers and range.

Spanish wolf diet varies enormously depending on the area.

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However, their biggest source of nutrition is livestock, most of which was taken as carrion, though with the recent EU's banning of leaving dead animals in the field because of fear of mad cow's disease, wolves are killing more living sheep and cows. This has become increasingly a source of friction. Conflict with livestock and humans In , wolves were estimated to have killed some 1, horses and donkeys, cows and 5, sheep and goats, representing a total loss of , euros. The figures are no doubt higher now, but over the wolf's full range , km2 these loses are tiny in comparison with other natural causes which regularly afflict farmers and herders disease, inclement weather but they can represent a serious problem for livestock raisers in certain local areas.

Clearly it is not that the Cantabrian wolves are any more aggressive, but rather that they find easy pickings in the plentiful livestock which graze in semi-freedom here. Unfortunately, wolves like many carnivores frequently get so excited by the blood and slaughter that they kill far more numbers of a flock than they need. In Spanish these attacks are known as lobadas. One study in Burgos showed an average of 7.

Whatever the case, the damage caused by wolves is often greatly exagerated. Attacks on livestock are most frequent in areas where animals are not protected in pens or by mastin dogs or shpeherds at night. This is most noted to the south of the Duero where despite having very low densities 'wolves ' are responsible for numerous attacks, particularly in the Sayago dehesas. The fact that livestock raising methods are less compatible with the wolf is unsuprisingly given its long absence.

But a word of warning, the area is also frequented by feral dogs which cause even more damage than the wolf with These are invariably blamed on wolves. In all surety, feral dogs cause far more damage than wild wolves to Spanish flocks and herds. One statistic should suffice: an estimated 87, eighty-seven thousand dogs were abandoned in in Spain. What do they eat? Wolves also play an important role as 'top dog' in the food chain.

This check on the boar population may well be good news for the incredibly endangered capercaillie, whose Cantabrian population has plummeted in recent years. Boars, it seems. See Wolves, boars and capercaillie. Wolf management is no easy task. They draw highly conflicting stances and beliefs, from an idealisation on the part of the urban population to the pragmatics of the rural populace.

And all too often the farmers' view is based on greed, ignorance and even hate as is evidenced week in week out in articles in the local press of wolf areas of Spain in which farmers, often goaded on by Partido Popular counsellors vastly inflate damage caused by the wolf.

This reached surreal proportions in when Asturian sheep farmers put in compensation claims for more sheep killed by wolves than actually existed in the Principality. The solution undoubtedly is a mixed bag including: use of traditional mastiff dogs to protect flocks, bringing back the old practice of closing livestock in for the night instead of leaving them untethered in the mountain pastures —increasingly and understandably farmers work only part time with their livestock, and so their animals are left up in the hills alone-, allowing prey species such as roe deer and chamois to grow unchecked by hunting, promoting tolerance for the wolf through educational programmes, reducing tensions between the different parties, encouraging dialogue, and perhaps most importantly the swift and full payment of compensation by the authorities for livestock killed.

Clearly, behind all the mumbo-jumbo the real reason for the historical and hysterical hate of the wolf lies in the fact that man and wolf compete for the same resources; the proteins from game and livestock. Another tradition based on firmer ground is the existence of half-wolf, half-dog hybrids, particularly in the Asturian folklore tradition, in which tame wolves known as lobos de jaulas — caged wolves are released into the hills to unleash havoc A modern version of this has recently hit the news in Asturias where the government and livestock farmers have warned of the presence of such crossovers.

Unusual behaviour has been detected among certain wolf individuals, which instead of fleeing at the sight of humans, stay and stare, albeit at a distance. They are reported to be attacking sheep and cows in broad daylight and close to villages. Many farmers are blaming the increase in attacks on livestock in some areas on these dog-wolves. Some experts claim that the hybrids have inherited the wolf's ferocity and the domestic dog's lack of fear of humans. The theory goes that a hybrid might have arisen through the mating of a lonely, old male wolf and a young female dog. The other way round would be impossible.

The former coupling would raise hybrid pups which would then protect them from wolf attacks. They would then begin to form a pack and attract new adepts. Unlike the farmers, the government believes dog-wolves are exceptional and isolated cases, though it currently is concentrating its wolf culling efforts on eradicating such crossovers.

In contrast, the leading wildlife protection group FAPAS in the area is highly sceptical of the existence of the beast. They believe such a coupling to be impossible because a wolf will always kill a dog given half the chance. It also believes that feral dogs are not to blame either, as, unlike the rest of Spain, wolf country is virtually free of wild dogs: wolves just hunt them down and kill them.

Then spend their days sleeping on the fireside rug at home. They are uncontrolled dogs, but they are not wild. In rural Asturias, most dogs are not fed at home. Where do you think they eat? It's just easier to blame the wolf. The village is also one of bases for climbing the myth-enshrouded twin-peaked mountain of Pedraforca , a bastion of the Catalan witching and mountaineering traditions. The landscape of black pine forests and limestone crags is rugged and spectacular. The wolf, a male, the first in Catalonia for more than 70 years, first hit the news in spring Contrary to many reports, the individual has NOT made its way all the way from Italy.

However, tests confirm that it is genetically Italian in origin, forming part of an expansion over a number generations out from the Apennines.

French Bulldog - BULERIA OF LEON GEROME

The Apennine population began to expand in several directions from the early 's. Most locals appear to be ambivalent rather than hostile towards its presence. The last Catalan wolf was shot in Terra Alta in the south of the Principality in ? This was no doubt a freak case, but wolves are slowly moving westwards from their Castilian strongholds. A pack is now established around Gallocanta in southern Aragon. Sooner or later packs of wolves are going to make their way along the Ebro corridor and into the mountains of southern Catalonia , and from here up the Cordilleras Costeras Catalanas…Another possible route in is along the Pyrenees.

Wolves are now present in western Huesca.

Materials and methods

Where to see wolves in Spain They may be Iberian wolves in Spain but if you want to see one in the wild, without expert help you're going to have to be persistent or lucky or both. Spanish wolves have long learnt to be vary of humans and so actual sightings are rare. Proof of this lies in the fact that most wolf hunts organised legally or illegally end in total failure. The best chance is probably Northen Zamora, where the highest wolf densities are found. The old presence of wolves is given away by many placenames throughout Spain and well beyond the wolf's present-day range.

Parameters of test day milk yield and milk components for dairy ewes [1998]

For example, Cantallops wolf song in Catalonia. The word lobo appears in several everyday Castilian expressions such as: tener un hambre de lobo: to be as hungry as a horse estar en la boca del lobo: to be in the lion's den ver las orejas del lobo: feel there is something dangerous afoot!

A lobo marino is a sea lion. Javier Rico. Zofio y Vega. A conversation with Juan Carlos Blanco. Temas de Hoy Comment on an earlier version of this article on the Iberian wolf by signatus. And following a subsquent question about the potential use of feeding stations as is done with vultures:. Las perras suelen sacar adelante a sus camadas solas. Latest news on Spanish wolves onwards. Spanish TVE documentary, broadcast on Sunday night.

Essential viewing Watch video online here on iberianature. Mastins and electric fences to protect against wolf in Castilla-Leon Terra Iberia N ature A guide to the natural history of Spain. By Nick Lloyd - Home - Contact. Spain is one of the last remaining refuges of the European wolf. There are several reasons for the rise in the wolf population. Region Packs No. More soon. Wolves in Galicia Figure for may have been exagerrated. Wolves are present at a low density throughout the region except for the coast where they only found in Costa da Morte.

As noted in this article, Galician wolves have long used rubbish heaps and remains from pig and poultry farms as a important food source. We bought a farm and will use it for cattle rearing. A noun is a word referring to a person, animal, place, thing, feeling or idea e. We've combined the most accurate English to Spanish translations, dictionary, verb conjugations, and Spanish to English translators into one very powerful search box.

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