PDF El romanticismo en Aragón (1838-1854). Literatura, prensa y sociedad (Spanish Edition)

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By the time the Wayback Machine launched, it contained over 10 billion archived pages. Today, the data is stored on the Internet Archive's large cluster of Linux nodes, it archives new versions of websites on occasion. Sites can be captured manually by entering a website's URL into the search box, provided that the website allows the Wayback Machine to "crawl" it and save the data. Software has been developed to "crawl" the web and download all publicly accessible World Wide Web pages, the Gopher hierarchy, the Netnews bulletin board system, downloadable software; the information collected by these "crawlers" does not include all the information available on the Internet, since much of the data is restricted by the publisher or stored in databases that are not accessible.

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As of , the Wayback Machine contained three petabytes of data and was growing at a rate of terabytes each month. A new, improved version of the Wayback Machine, with an updated interface and a fresher index of archived content, was made available for public testing in In March that year, it was said on the Wayback Machine forum that "the Beta of the new Wayback Machine has a more complete and up-to-date index of all crawled materials into , will continue to be updated regularly. The index driving the classic Wayback Machine only has a little bit of material past , no further index updates are planned, as it will be phased out this year.

In January , the company announced a ground-breaking milestone of billion URLs. In October , the company announced the "Save a Page" feature which allows any Internet user to archive the contents of a URL; this became a threat of abuse by the service for hosting malicious binaries. As of December , the Wayback Machine contained billion web pages—almost nine petabytes of data, was growing at about 20 terabytes a week; as of July , the Wayback Machine contained around 15 petabytes of data.

As of September , the Wayback Machine contained more than 25 petabytes of data. Between October and March , the website's global Alexa rank changed from to In March the rank was at Wayback Machine has respected the robots exclusion standard in determining if a website would be crawled or not. Website owners had the option to opt-out of Wayback M. The library park has public spaces with three different ambiances: a green plaza, a water plaza, a plaza for the public.

Universities in Colombia began a program of sharing with the University of Tokyo in ; as part of this exchange, a group of architects from the University of Tokyo, under the direction of Hiroshi Naito, donated the design of Bethlehem Library. Official Library Homepage. The library was designed by architect Javier Vera. Construction began on June 1, Colombia Colombia the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state situated in the northwest of South America , with territories in Central America.

Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama , to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru , it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica , Honduras , Jamaica and the Dominican Republic. Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogota.

Independence from Spain was achieved in , but by the " Gran Colombia " Federation was dissolved, with what is now Colombia and Panama emerging as the Republic of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation , the United States of Colombia , before the Republic of Colombia was declared in Panama seceded in Beginning in the s, the country suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and rampant political violence, both of which escalated in the s. Since , there has been significant improvement in security and rule of law.

Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, with its rich cultural heritage reflecting influences by indigenous peoples, European settlement, forced African migration, immigration from Europe and the Middle East. Urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains and the Caribbean coast.

Colombia is among the world's 17 megadiverse countries, the most densely biodiverse per square kilometer. Colombia's diversified economy is the fourth largest in Latin America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects. The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus , it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World , but to those portions under Spanish rule.

The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of , formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada ; when Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name "Republic of New Granada". New Granada changed its name in to the Granadine Confederation. In the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before adopting its present name — the Republic of Colombia — in Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin.

These sites date from the Paleoindian period. At Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found. Vestiges indicate that there was early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca; the oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to — BCE. Indigenous people inhabited the territory, now Colombia by 12, BCE. Between and BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies. They farmed maize , potato and cotton, traded gold, blankets, ceramic handicrafts and rock salt with neighboring nations.

Most of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of each indigenous community was different; some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes. The Incas expanded their empire onto the southwest part of the country. Alonso de Ojeda reached the Guajira Peninsula in Spanish explorers, led by Rodrigo de Bastidas , made the first exploration.

He dedicated himself to simple jobs: tailor , secretary of a judge, storekeeper in a mine, worker of the Ministry of Public Works , he was an avid reader, one of the most original Colombian literary writers influencing the younger generation of his time and generations. Many young writers and intellectuals of his time joined. Carrasquilla's life straddled two centuries, becoming a link between two epochs in Colombia's history; when he was born in , the country was called the Republic of New Granada , newly independent of Spain.

He saw the Colombian industrial revolution at the beginning of the 20th century, the Thousand Days War , many other changes in his country. The Colombian civil wars of the 19th century were the reason why Carrasquilla could not finish his studies of Law at the University of Antioquia. His family owned some gold mines, this allowed him to live well enough and dedicate himself to writing. He returned to Santo Domingo, where he did some jobs in the municipality. When he returned to Santo Domingo, he dedicated himself to writing, until , when he lost his fortune due to the Banco Popular bankruptcy.

In , surgery gave him back limited vision. It is named after the country of Spain, whose government helped fund the project through the Spanish Agency for International Development Cooperation ; the library is noted for its architecture. Its three buildings are meant to resemble black stones.

It was completed in after the plans were approved in ; the construction area was 5, sqm with a final floor area of 3, sqm. The library consists of three interconnected buildings decorated on the outside with dark stone tiles; the three buildings each house different programs: the library, the training rooms, the auditorium, donated by the Spanish government.

The three buildings are connected by a platform. New footpaths and roads were built nearby to connect the library to the neighborhood; the library was intentionally created with small windows, so that visitors could disconnect from the surrounding conditions of the neighborhood. At the end of the 20th century, the northwest barrio of Santo Domingo, located in the 1st commune , was considered one of the most dangerous places in Latin America ; as late as , the people were not allowed to stay on the streets after 5 p.

The Northeast Integral Urban Project was a city initiative to improve infrastructure in the poorest two zones in the north-west. A scheme for five Library parks was planned, the fourth one built and the most famous of which today is the Spain Library. In , the city government hired the National University of Colombia to conduct a study of the problems of the facade.

In , the study by the university was completed; the results said. This repair will cost around 11, million pesos. It is located in a central region of the Andes Mountains in South America. According to the National Administrative Department of Statistics , the city has an estimated population of 2. In , the city was named the capital of the Department of Antioquia by the National Congress of the nascent Republic of Gran Colombia , comprised by present-day Colombia, Venezuela and Panama.

Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute have lauded the city as a pioneer of a post-Washington consensus "local development state" model of economic development; the city is promoted internationally as a tourist destination and is considered a global city type "Gamma -" by GaWC. Miguel Aguinaga y Mendiogoitia, made the name official on November 2, ; the Crown granted a coat of arms to the city on June 24, In , Gaspar de Rodas asked the Antioquia's Cabildo for 10 square kilometers of land to establish herds and a ranch in the valley; the Cabildo granted him 8 square kilometers of land.

Three years the Spaniards started the construction of the Basilica of Our Lady of Candelaria , rebuilt at the end of the 18th century. After , with Gaspar de Rodas settled in the valley, population started to grow. According to the church records of the San Lorenzo Church, six couples married between and , 41 between and Gold mines were developed northeast of Antioquia , thus they needed food supply from nearby agriculture.

From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia. This article is about the library park in Medellin, Colombia. For other uses, see Quintana disambiguation. Universidad de Zaragoza. Retrieved 23 August Ciudad y arquitectura urbana en Colombia Universidad de Antioquia. Hidden categories: Webarchive template wayback links Articles with short description Colombia articles missing geocoordinate data All articles needing coordinates. Website owners had the option to opt-out of Wayback M Bethlehem Library. Related Images. YouTube Videos. La Alpujarra offices the mayor of the city and the governor of the Antioquia department.

Persia at the time of the Achaemenid Empire was home to some outstanding libraries; those libraries within the kingdom had two major functions: the first came from the need to keep the records of administrative documents including transactions, governmental orders, budget allocation within and between the Satrapies and the central ruling State. The second function was to collect precious resources on different subjects of science and set of principles e. It is located in the Aures neighborhood in the northwestern quarter of the city, it opened in and was one of five libraries constructed as part of cultural redevelopment efforts in the city targeted to serve underprivileged communities.

The library was purposefully located on the basin of La Quintana creek in order to create a central cultural zone that united the surrounding neighborhoods that were separated by La Quintana; the park space was designed as a "public road" that connects with the roads to the different neighborhoods in the area.


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The library design consists of two giant blocks; the lower block houses the book computer lab in an enclosed space. The upper block in an open-air public space for talking and houses a cafeteria. Hiroshi Naito Hiroshi Naito is an architect from Japan. Naito was born in in Japan, his practice is based in Tokyo.

He is known for his modern architecture. Naito is Professor emeritus at the University of Tokyo. Naito received a M. Naito designed a "dog cooler" for Spitz. It is located in a central region of the Andes Mountains in South America. According to the National Administrative Department of Statistics , the city has an estimated population of 2. In , the city was named the capital of the Department of Antioquia by the National Congress of the nascent Republic of Gran Colombia , comprised by present-day Colombia, Venezuela and Panama.

Researchers at the Overseas Development Institute have lauded the city as a pioneer of a post-Washington consensus "local development state" model of economic development; the city is promoted internationally as a tourist destination and is considered a global city type "Gamma -" by GaWC. Miguel Aguinaga y Mendiogoitia, made the name official on November 2, ; the Crown granted a coat of arms to the city on June 24, In , Gaspar de Rodas asked the Antioquia's Cabildo for 10 square kilometers of land to establish herds and a ranch in the valley; the Cabildo granted him 8 square kilometers of land.

Three years the Spaniards started the construction of the Basilica of Our Lady of Candelaria , rebuilt at the end of the 18th century. After , with Gaspar de Rodas settled in the valley, population started to grow. According to the church records of the San Lorenzo Church, six couples married between and , 41 between and Gold mines were developed northeast of Antioquia , thus they needed food supply from nearby agriculture.

Urban open space In land use planning, urban open space is open space areas for "parks," "green spaces," and other open areas. The landscape of urban open spaces can range from playing fields to maintained environments to natural landscapes. Areas outside city boundaries, such as state and national parks as well as open space in the countryside, are not considered urban open space. Streets, piazzas and urban squares are not always defined as urban open space in land use planning; the terms "urban open space" can describe many types of open areas.

One definition holds that, "As the counterpart of development, urban open space is a natural and cultural resource, synonymous with neither'unused land' nor'park and recreation areas. In all instances, the space referred to by the term is, in fact, green space. From another standpoint public space in general is defined as the meeting or gathering places that exist outside the home and workplace that are accessible by members of the public, which foster resident interaction and opportunities for contact and proximity; this definition implies a higher level of community interaction and places a focus on public involvement rather than public ownership or stewardship.

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The benefits that urban open space provides to citizens can be broken into three basic forms. Psychological benefits gained by visitors to urban green spaces increased with their biodiversity , indicating that'green' alone is not sufficient. Urban open space is appreciated for the recreational opportunities it provides. Recreation in urban open space may include active recreation or passive recreation, which may entail being in the open space.


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  8. Research shows that when open spaces are attractive and accessible, people are more to engage in physical activity. Time spent in an urban open space for recreation offers a reprieve from the urban environment and a break from over-stimulation. Studies done on physically active adults middle aged and older show there are amplified benefits when the physical activities are coupled with green space environments; such coupling leads to decreased levels of stress, lowers the risk for depression as well as increase the frequency of participation in exercise.

    Casual group walks in a green environment increase one's positive attitude and lower stress levels as well as risk of depression; the conservation of nature in an urban environment has direct impact on people for another reason as well. As humans live more and more in man-made surroundings — i. In a sense, by having the opportunity to be within a natural urban green space people gain a higher appreciation for the nature around them; as Bill McKibben mentions in his book The End of Nature , people will only understand nature if they are immersed within it.

    He follows in Henry David Thoreau's footsteps when he isolated himself in the Adirondack Mountains in order to get away from society and the overwhelming ideals it carries. There he writes how society and human impact follows him as he sees airplanes buzzing overhead or hears the roar of motorboats in the distance; the aesthetic value of urban open spaces is self-evident. People enjoy viewing nature when it is otherwise extensively deprived, as is the case in urban environments. Therefore, open space offers the value of "substituting gray infrastructure.

    Properties near urban open space tend to have a higher value. One study was able to demonstrate that, "a pleasant view can lead to a considerable increase in house price if the house overlooks water or open space. For example, people who were shown pictures of scenic, natural environments had increased brain activity in the region associated with recalling happy memories, compared to people that were shown pictures of urban landscapes; the advocacy for mental health is becoming rampant, given the psychiatric illnesses that contribute to morbidity and mortality in the United States.

    Health disparities existing within and amongst communities make this issue of paramount importance. The correlation between psychological distress and socioeconomic status has been examined. Sugiyama demonstrates that psychological distress is positively correlated with lower SES. A contributing factor to this socioeconomic disparity is the higher amounts. Colombia Colombia the Republic of Colombia, is a sovereign state situated in the northwest of South America , with territories in Central America. Colombia shares a border to the northwest with Panama , to the east with Venezuela and Brazil and to the south with Ecuador and Peru , it shares its maritime limits with Costa Rica , Honduras , Jamaica and the Dominican Republic.

    Colombia is a unitary, constitutional republic comprising thirty-two departments, with the capital in Bogota. Independence from Spain was achieved in , but by the " Gran Colombia " Federation was dissolved, with what is now Colombia and Panama emerging as the Republic of New Granada. The new nation experimented with federalism as the Granadine Confederation , the United States of Colombia , before the Republic of Colombia was declared in Panama seceded in Beginning in the s, the country suffered from an asymmetric low-intensity armed conflict and rampant political violence, both of which escalated in the s.

    Since , there has been significant improvement in security and rule of law. Colombia is one of the most ethnically and linguistically diverse countries in the world, with its rich cultural heritage reflecting influences by indigenous peoples, European settlement, forced African migration, immigration from Europe and the Middle East.

    Urban centres are located in the highlands of the Andes mountains and the Caribbean coast. Colombia is among the world's 17 megadiverse countries, the most densely biodiverse per square kilometer. Colombia's diversified economy is the fourth largest in Latin America, with macroeconomic stability and favorable long-term growth prospects. The name "Colombia" is derived from the last name of Christopher Columbus , it was conceived by the Venezuelan revolutionary Francisco de Miranda as a reference to all the New World , but to those portions under Spanish rule.

    The name was adopted by the Republic of Colombia of , formed from the territories of the old Viceroyalty of New Granada ; when Venezuela and Cundinamarca came to exist as independent states, the former Department of Cundinamarca adopted the name "Republic of New Granada". New Granada changed its name in to the Granadine Confederation. In the name was again changed, this time to United States of Colombia, before adopting its present name — the Republic of Colombia — in Owing to its location, the present territory of Colombia was a corridor of early human migration from Mesoamerica and the Caribbean to the Andes and Amazon basin.

    These sites date from the Paleoindian period. At Puerto Hormiga and other sites, traces from the Archaic Period have been found. Vestiges indicate that there was early occupation in the regions of El Abra and Tequendama in Cundinamarca; the oldest pottery discovered in the Americas, found at San Jacinto, dates to — BCE.

    Indigenous people inhabited the territory, now Colombia by 12, BCE. Between and BCE, hunter-gatherer tribes transitioned to agrarian societies. They farmed maize , potato and cotton, traded gold, blankets, ceramic handicrafts and rock salt with neighboring nations. Most of the Amerindians practiced agriculture and the social structure of each indigenous community was different; some groups of indigenous people such as the Caribs lived in a state of permanent war, but others had less bellicose attitudes.

    The Incas expanded their empire onto the southwest part of the country. Alonso de Ojeda reached the Guajira Peninsula in Spanish explorers, led by Rodrigo de Bastidas , made the first exploration. The library park has public spaces with three different ambiances: a green plaza, a water plaza, a plaza for the public. Universities in Colombia began a program of sharing with the University of Tokyo in ; as part of this exchange, a group of architects from the University of Tokyo, under the direction of Hiroshi Naito, donated the design of Bethlehem Library.

    Official Library Homepage. From Wikipedia, the free encyclopedia.

    Combination of a library building with surrounding green space for public use. Universidad de Zaragoza. Retrieved 16 August Hidden categories: Articles with short description Articles containing Spanish-language text Colombia articles missing geocoordinate data All articles needing coordinates.

    Bethlehem Library - Wikipedia

    Revision History. Related Images. YouTube Videos. His work includes projects in other countries. His practice is based in Tokyo.

    León de Greiff Library

    Muisca raft. The figure refers to the ceremony of the legend of El Dorado. The Socorro Province was the site of the genesis of the independence process. A library is a collection of sources of information and similar resources, made accessible to a defined community for reference or borrowing.

    It provides physical or digital access to material, and may be a physical building or room, or a virtual space, or both. The Halifax Central Library , a modern city library. Tablet from the Library of Ashurbanipal containing part of the Epic of Gilgamesh. Remains of the Library of Celsus at Ephesus.

    In land use planning, urban open space is open space areas for "parks," "green spaces," and other open areas. The landscape of urban open spaces can range from playing fields to highly maintained environments to relatively natural landscapes. Forsyth Park is a large urban open space area in the downtown district of Savannah, Georgia. Asramam Maidan in Kollam city, India.